From K,S,A To A,S,K

Learning Outcomes Domains (KSA Model)

Have you ever sat in a lecture and wondered why doesn’t the professor just email you the presentation to read at home?
If yes, then you are not alone!

If the purpose of this lecture were to make the learners aware of the core content pieces covered in the PowerPoint, then different types of learners would respond to different kind of methods, such as visual aids or audio recordings.

But that is not what is all to learning; educational psychologists and researches have devoted their life work to identify the different types of learning outcomes and probe and assess the learning process accordingly.

In 1956, Bloom’s Taxonomy was created under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom to promote higher forms of thinking in education. The framework categorizes learning objectives for student performance evaluation through focusing on the three major domains of Learning:

  • Knowledge (Cognitive)
  • Skills
  • Affective/attitudes (feelings or emotional areas)


The framework is built on the notion that a learning process should leave the learner with new acquired Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes, commonly referred to as KSA.

Despite Bloom’s intent to address all three domains, Bloom’s Taxonomy applies only to acquiring Knowledge in the Cognitive domain.

In 2001, a revision of bloom’s taxonomy was published under the title, A Taxonomy for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. Within the amended version, the titles of the major cognitive process categories were changed to indicate a more dynamic conception of classification. Meaning that instead of the rigid concepts in Bloom’s taxonomy, the revised version uses verbs and action words. It also changes the order, placing Creating instead of Evaluation as the end goal.


These subdivisions are not absolutes and have been under constant revision and refinement over the years to fully cover the three domains. Nevertheless, Bloom’s Taxonomy remains the most widely applied in the educational and training world today.

The Transformation from KSA To ASK

While Knowledge remains an essential domain in any learning process, it is not the only or main domain, especially nowadays that learners can get access to knowledge from many different sources other than the classroom.

Therefore, we endorse following a different order. As a learner experience facilitator (LXF), your priority of learning outcomes during the event should follow this direction:

  1. Attitudes
  2. Skill
  3. Knowledge


So, our approach places Attitudes first!

We believe that by channeling the attitudes of the learner and integrating their skills in the learning process, we motivate the learner to gain more knowledge and expand their learning abilities.

We consider every moment that learners spend in the classroom, to be very valuable; a lot of magic can happen when they share their insights, ideas, solutions and questions about the topic, real transformation can happen when they start practicing what they learn inside the training room, which will accelerate transforming this learning to reality.

To enable the learner to get the most cognitive knowledge out of the learning process, you need to enable them to think, reflect, and analyze their own interactions.

This should happen through fostering the learner’s feelings and emotions, tackling and encouraging their technical and physical skills within the training –especially in the trip–. Eventually, the learner becomes invested and motivated to gain more knowledge and expand on what they have already experienced

In our experience at SeGa Group, channeling the attitudes of the learners first, results in an increasing self-motivation where the learners are passionate about the subject and often ask for extra materials and seek more knowledge on their own.


  1. Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., Wittrock, M.C. (2001). New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
  2. Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H., Krathwohl, D.R. (1956). New York: David McKay Co Inc. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.
  3. Bloom’s Taxonomy
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